Ekstrak Kulit dan Biji Anggur (Vitis vinifera) Menurunkan Jumlah Sel Neuron yang Rusak, Volume Infark, dan Memperbaiki Fungsi Motorik pada Tikus Wistar Model Stroke Iskemik

Astrid Nandikasari Lukito, Mohammad Rasjad Indra

Abstract


Stroke iskemik merupakan penyakit karena tersumbatnya pembuluh darah ke otak sehingga menyebabkan kerusakan neurologis. Kerusakan ini akibat perubahan seluler yang menyebabkan kerusakan neuron, edema otak, dan penurunan fungsi motorik. Ekstrak kulit dan biji anggur (Vitis vinifera) mengandung resveratrol yang mampu melintasi sawar darah otak dan memperbaiki kematian neuron melalui jalur patofisiologi seluler serta menginduksi ERK 1/2 pathway untuk regenerasi otak. Pada penelitian ini ingin diketahui korelasi antara perbaikan jumlah neuron yang rusak, volume infark, dan fungsi motorik setelah pemberian ekstrak kulit dan biji anggur pada tikus. Penelitian eksperimental ini menggunakan tikus (Rattus norvegicus) yang terbagi menjadi 5 kelompok yaitu (1) kontrol positif (+), (2) kontrol negatif (-), (3)  dosis ekstrak 50 mg/kgBB, (4)  dosis ekstrak 100 mg/kgBB, dan (5) dosis ekstrak 200 mg/kgBB. Ekstrak diberikan selama 2 minggu. Tikus diinduksi stroke dengan metode unilateral carotid artery occlusion selama 45 menit. Kemudian diuji fungsi motoriknya dengan ladder rung walking test. Setelah 2 minggu, dianalisis fungsi motorik, jumlah neuron yang rusak dan volume infark dengan metode hematoksilin & eosin. Berdasarkan uji Pearson terdapat korelasi yang cukup antara fungsi motorik dengan jumlah neuron yang rusak maupun volume infark (berturut-turut R = 0,306; R = 0,346). Sementara antara jumlah neuron yang rusak dengan volume infark terdapat korelasi yang kuat (R = 0,645, p = 0,002; p < 0,05). Kesimpulannya terdapat korelasi antara perbaikan jumlah sel neuron yang  rusak, volume infark, dan fungsi motorik.

Kata kunci: Kulit dan biji anggur, Motorik, Infark, Regenerasi otak, Resveratrol, Stroke.


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References


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