Tinjauan Literatur: SUMBER POTENSIAL PENYEBARAN SARS-CoV-2 DARI LINGKUNGAN RUMAH SAKIT DAN PENTINGNYA PEMANTAUAN SANITASI RUMAH SAKIT UNTUK MENEKAN PANDEMI COVID-19 DI INDONESIA

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21776/majalahkesehatan.2022.009.03.7

Keywords:

limbah, nosokomial, pandemi, Rumah Sakit, sanitasi

Abstract

Beberapa bukti menunjukkan sumber potensial penyebaran SARS-CoV-2 dari lingkungan rumah sakit. Sanitasi rumah sakit penting untuk mencegah infeksi nosokomial dan menekan penyebaran COVID-19. Telaah literatur ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi potensi bahaya terkait sanitasi serta metode pemantauan sanitasi di rumah sakit selama pandemi COVID-19. Literatur diperoleh dengan menelusuri jurnal dan laporan lembaga resmi luar negeri terkait COVID-19 di internet. Banyak prosedur di rumah sakit yang menghasilkan aerosol, sementara banyak ruangan di rumah sakit belum memenuhi standar ventilasi udara. Di sisi lain, karena penapisan tidak memadai, pegawai rumah sakit dapat bertemu pasien COVID-19 di semua area rumah sakit. Kondisi ini menimbulkan keraguan  akan kebersihan udara dan permukaan benda-benda, serta penyebaran virus antar ruangan di rumah sakit. Identifikasi sanitasi rumah sakit yang sering terlewatkan adalah: 1) kontaminasi virus di udara dan permukaan benda-benda di seluruh area rumah sakit, 2) kontaminasi virus di kasur, bantal, dan guling yang sering terlewatkan pada pembersihan rutin, 3) kontaminasi virus di toilet oleh proses aerosolisasi ekskreta, dan 4) kontaminasi virus di air limbah rumah sakit. Sebaiknya terdapat instansi di setiap kota/kabupaten yang dapat menangani pemeriksaan spesimen lingkungan yang dikumpulkan dari berbagai rumah sakit. Deteksi virus di udara, dapat menggunakan kit deteksi SARS-CoV-2 udara; deteksi permukaan benda, dapat menggunakan swab; pada limbah, dapat digunakan sampel cairan limbah untuk deteksi genom SARS-CoV-2 dengan RT-PCR. Hasil pemeriksaan dapat menjadi panduan untuk mengubah atau mempertahankan aturan dan kebijakan rumah sakit. Kesimpulannya, identifikasi potensi bahaya serta kebutuhan dan metode pemantauan sanitasi rumah sakit harus dikembangkan untuk mencegah infeksi nosokomial COVID-19 dan menekan penyebaran pandemi.

Author Biography

Dian Hasanah, Universitas Brawijaya-RSUD dr. Saiful Anwar Malang

Departemen Fisiologi, Fakultas Kedokteran 

Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran 

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2022-11-09