Tinjauan Literatur : PATOGENESIS INFEKSI HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS SEBAGAI DASAR DALAM PENGEMBANGAN PENCEGAHAN DAN TERAPI BARU PADA KANKER PENIS

Heru Fajar Trianto, Anny Setijo Rahaju

Abstract


Kanker penis merupakan salah satu keganasan pada pria yang jarang terjadi. Berbagai faktor risiko berperan dalam kejadian kanker penis, salah satunya adalah infeksi Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Infeksi HPV merupakan salah satu penyakit menular seksual yang terjadi pada usia reproduktif. Tinjauan literatur ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan peran infeksi HPV terhadap kejadian kanker penis,  perkembangan vaksin untuk mengurangi risiko terjadinya kanker penis serta imunoterapi untuk meningkatkan angka kesembuhan dan menurunkan angka kematian akibat kanker penis. Artikel didapatkan melalui penelusuran secara online menggunakan Pubmed, Sage Journals, dan Google Cendekia menggunakan kata kunci human papillomavirus, penile cancer, kanker penis, vaccine, atau targeted therapies. Hasil penelusuran offline melalui hasil penelitian yang tidak dipublikasikan dan buku referensi. Hasil pencarian online mendapatkan 9110 artikel yang terkait dengan kata kunci, namun hanya 31 artikel yang ditelaah. Hasil telaah mejelaskan bahwa patogenesis infeksi HPV pada proses onkogenesis kanker penis melibatkan berbagai jalur molekuler dan sistem imun di sekitar tumor yang dapat digunakan sebagai dasar dalam pengembangan upaya pencegahan dan terapi baru. Salah satu cara pencegahan kanker penis adalah dengan pemberian vaksin HPV menggunakan teknologi Virus-Like Particles (VLP) yang dapat mencegah kejadian lesi genital. Kaitan antara HPV dan sistem imun dikembangkan sebagai terapi target yang baru. Beberapa penelitian mengenai terapi target pada kanker yang berkembang saat ini menunjukan bahwa pemberian immune checkpoint inhibitors dapat meningkatkan sistem imun dalam proses eliminasi sel kanker. Terapi target tersebut dapat meningkatkan angka kesembuhan dari penderita dan mengurangi efek samping dari terapi yang ada saat ini.

 


Keywords


human papillomavirus; kanker penis; patogenesis

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References


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