CAKUPAN DAN DETERMINAN PEMBERIAN ASI EKSKLUSIF DI PEMUKIMAN KUMUH DALAM PERKOTAAN DI KECAMATAN TALLO KOTA MAKASSAR

Erwin La Aga, La Ode Alifariki

Abstract


Abstrak

 

Secara global cakupan ASI eksklusif mencapai 36 persen pada tahun 2011. Menurut Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013, cakupan ASI eksklusif mencapai 38% di Indonesia, yang masih jauh dari target World Health Assembly (WHA) yaitu 50% pada tahun 2025. Penelitian ini bertujuan menilai cakupan dan determinan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Rancangan penelitian adalah cross sectional. Wawancara dilakukan pada 221 wanita yang mempunyai bayi berusia antara 7-12 bulan. Studi ini dilakukan di tujuh pemukiman kumuh dari sembilan lokasi kumuh yang ditetapkan oleh pemerintah daerah Makassar. Analisis multivariat menggunakan perangkat lunak SPSS. Cakupan pemberian ASI eksklusif di pemukiman kumuh dalam perkotaan Kota Makassar adalah 20,4%. Hasil uji multivariat menunjukkan hubungan bermakna sikap ibu (OR = 3,458; 95%CI = 1,626-7,354) (P = 0,001) dan kunjungan ANC (OR = 5,124; 95%CI = 1,162-22,597) (P = 0,031) dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Namun, umur ibu, etnik, jenis persalinan, paritas, tempat persalinan, pekerjaan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, pendidikan ibu, pengetahuan, keterpaparan informasi, dukungan suami, dukungan keluarga, dukungan petugas kesehatan tidak berhubungan dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Faktor predisposisi yang berhubungan bermakna dengan pemberian ASI eksklusif pada bayi sampai usia sampai 6 bulan adalah sikap ibu. Sikap positif ibu tentang ASI eksklusif memiliki kemungkinan memberikan ASI eksklusif dibanding dengan ibu yang bersikap negatif. Maka, perlu upaya perbaikan pada sikap ibu tentang ASI eksklusif, komunikasi, informasi dan edukasi (KIE) tentang kolostrum, inisiasi menyusu dini (IMD), pemberian makanan prelakteat lebih ditingkatkan dengan cara konseling tentang ASI eksklusif sejak prapersalinan.

 


Keywords


asi eksklusif; Kota Makassar; pemukiman kumuh.

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